F2C Team Race

F2C Team Race

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F2C Team Race

Racing events involve the flying of two or more airplanes together in the same circle. The idea, of course, is to complete a given number of laps before ones’ opponents do. Racing events usually involves a minimum number of pit stops, where the planes are landed, refuelled, restarted and relaunched by a second team member (mechanic).

Racing type competition takes many forms. Some require that a given amount of fuel is carried, and some require a mandatory number of fuelling stops.

Internationally, F2C is also known as FAI Team Race. This is the Formula 1 of control line team racing and requires immense dedication by the team as well as finely honed skills.

Three teams fly a race together in one circle. The team who has finished 100 laps first is the winner. The limited tank volume of 7cc allows for only about 35 laps. So pit stops are required. This is a challenge for the mechanic to catch the model, refill the tank, start the engine, and re-launch the airplane as fast as possible. Models are going over 200 km/h, so both members of the team should have lightening reflexes. After several qualification rounds the final is flown over 200 laps.





4.3.1. Definition of a Team Racing Event
a) A team racing event is a contest during which eliminating races are followed by semi-finals races and a final race, in which three model aircraft participate simultaneously in each race, flying around the same circuit, each of them being entered by one team consisting of one pilot and one mechanic. In exceptional cases, a race may be run with only two teams.
b) No member of a team may be a member of another team.
c) A race is run over a set number of laps corresponding to the distance to be covered with at least one landing for refuelling. The time taken by each model aircraft to cover that distance after the starting signal is registered. Team classification will follow the process indicated in 4.3.10.
d) The eliminating races and the semi-finals races are run over 100 laps, corresponding to 10 kilometres. The final race is run over 200 laps, corresponding to 20 km.
e) During the race the pilots remain in the centre of the circuit. Their only function is to control the model aircraft. The mechanics are placed outside the flight circle, as defined in paragraph 4.3.2. Their function is to start and adjust the motor and to refuel when the model aircraft is on the ground, and generally, to deal with the different operations that enable the model aircraft to race. The motor must be started by flicking the propeller by hand.
f) During a race, the mechanics must wear a safety helmet, with a chinstrap, strong enough to withstand the impact of a flying team racing model aircraft.
4.3.2. Team Racing SiteA team racing site must consist of four concentric circles which shall be marked on the ground:
a) Circle to be used by the mechanics: 19,6 m radius. This is called the flight circle, and is divided into six equal 60 degree sectors. At each sector a starting and refuelling area, one meter in length, shall be marked on the outside of the flight circle and be known as the “pitting area”.
b) Circle at 19.1 m radius shall be marked with a broken line. It indicates the point beyond which the pitman is not permitted to reach to retrieve a model. This is called the safety circle.
c) Circle to be used by the pilots: radius 3 metres. This is called the centre circle. The centre of this circle shall be marked with a white spot of 0,3 m diameter.
d) Circle at 2m radius, and known as the inner circle, shall be marked with a broken line in a contrasting colour.
4.3.3. Definition of a Team Racing Model AircraftModel aircraft in which the propulsion energy is provided by a piston motor(s) and in which lift is obtained by aerodynamic forces acting on the supporting surfaces which must remain fixed in flight except for control surfaces. The model aircraft must be of a semi-scale type and its general lines must be similar to those of a full-size aircraft.
4.3.4. Characteristics of a Team Racing Model Aircraft
a) Maximum swept volume of motor(s) : 2,5 cm3
The maximum exhaust outlet area is 60 mm2 at the cylinder liner projected exhaust outlet or crankcase exhaust outlet. If a silencer is used the measurement is taken at the exhaust outlet of the silencer. The piston face at the exhaust outlet shall not be visible from the exterior of the model aircraft when side or front exhaust engines are used.
b) Minimum total projected surface area (St) : 12 dm2
c) Total maximum weight : 500g
d) Minimum dimensions of the fuselage at the pilot’s location: height: 100 mm; width: 50 mm; cross-sectional area: 39 cm2 – (wing fillets shall not be included in the fuselage cross-sectional area).
e) The model aircraft must carry a scale pilot head with minimum dimensions: height: 20 mm; length: 14 mm; width: 14 mm.
f) Minimum diameter of the wheel(s): 25 mm. The use of metal wheels is forbidden.
g) Maximum fuel permitted: 7 cm3. Only one tank is allowed, to contain fuel and oil for lubrication.
h) The model aircraft must fly in the anti-clockwise direction.
i) The motor(s) must be entirely enclosed including the cylinder head and the body of the carburettor (except the opening of the induction throat). The fairing or additional extensions to the motor shall be permitted to be exposed as long as they conform to the natural shape of the fuselage and do not mar the semi-scale appearance of the model aircraft. The only parts permitted to protrude from the fuselage are those to be manipulated during the operations of starting the motor, regulating the mixture, plugs, advance control, compression control, needle valves, tank fillers, etc. If a silencer is used, it may be fixed outside the fuselage.
j) Openings for the entry and exit of air, exhaust, etc. may be provided for proper functioning of the motor(s).
k) A cockpit or cabin with transparent windshield giving direct visibility forward must be provided to house the scale model aircraft pilot head which shall be clearly and fully visible.
l) The landing gear must be arranged to permit normal take-of and landing. It may be retractable during flight but must return to its extended position before landing.
m) The model aircraft must remain in a correct state according to 4.3.4 (a) – (n) throughout the full race, otherwise it will be disqualified.
n) Fuel tank, tubing and any associated filling valves or shut-off units must be accessible and capable of being measured accurately in order to check the total capacity as a unit. If the organisers do not consider the system to be accessible or accurately measurable, then the team will be disqualified.
o) The model aircraft must be equipped with an effective engine-stopping device for enabling the pilot to terminate the engine run before the fuel tank is completely empty.
p) Rule B.3.1. of Section 4B does not apply to class F2C.
4.3.5. Controls – Technical Verification
a) Line Length: The radius of the flight circle is 15,92 m. It is measured from the axis of the control handle to the axis of the propeller for a single motor model aircraft and to the axis of symmetry for a multimotor model aircraft.
b) Control System: Two control lines must be used. If constructed of single steel wire each, these must be of 0,30 mm minimum diameter with a minus tolerance of 0,011 mm allowed. If stranded line construction is used, these shall have a minimum of three strands and all strands shall be of equal diameter and the stranded combination shall have a minimum width of 0,34 mm with no minus tolerance allowed. In all cases the lines shall be measured using a suitable instrument with measuring surface diameters of 5 mm minimum and 8 mm maximum. Before every race a load test shall be applied to the assembled control lines and the model aircraft in flying order equal to 30 times the gravity force, to a maximum of pull 140 N. The control handle must be built so that the distance between the axis of the handle and the points of flexibility of the two cables does not exceed 40 mm. No intentional twisting and/or linking of the two lines together shall be permitted between the point of exit of the model aircraft and a point 300 mm from the handle. The use of flexible grouper(s) attached to the wing tip and extending a maximum of 2 cm is permitted.
c) Fuel Tanks: The fuel tank capacity is checked through the use of an accurate system by visual examination of the volume of the fuel put into the tank and pipes. Control is to be made before the contest and may be made after each race in addition to a verification after the final race.
d) If the engine has an integral head or extremely tight fitted piston liner assembly, the entrant must provide tooling to allow the piston connecting rod & shaft assembly to be rotated through 360 degrees. A dummy cylinder would be ideal.
4.3.6. Organisation of Races
a) Three competing teams (in exceptions only two) will fly simultaneously in each race after having been drawn for order. Qualifying races with less than 3 teams will be put at the end of the draw, in order to allow a three-team races with teams which have been granted an attempt.
b) The draw is organised in such a way that, when possible, only one team of any nation may participate in an eliminating race or semi-final race.
c) When it is not possible to organise a reflight for a team which has been granted an attempt, the F2C panel of judges will ask for volunteers (from different countries in the case of World Championships and Continental Championships) to fill the qualifying race. The F2C panel of judges will organise an appropriate draw for the race among the volunteers and the team with the attempt. If there are no volunteers, the team will be allowed to fly alone to complete their qualifying reflight during the same round.
d) The teams may be allowed to run their motors just before entering the circle under the organiser’s supervision so the running does not interfere with the starting procedure of a race. Mechanics are not allowed to walk with a running engine.
e) A pitting area (4.3.2.(a)) is occupied by each of the model aircraft which are to participate in a race. The model aircraft of the team designated first during the draw occupies the place chosen by that team. The other teams choose one of the remaining free pitting areas in order of the draw. The chosen pitting areas are considered occupied until the race is finished.For the final race, the choice of the pitting areas shall be according to the results in the semi-finals. The team with the fastest time chooses first, the team with the second fastest time chooses next, etc. In case of a tie the teams’ second fastest times in the semi-finals will decide the order of choice.
f) After entry to the circuit, it is forbidden to start a motor before the first signal has been given by the Circle Marshal, unless allowed by the Circle-Marshal.
4.3.7. Race from Start to Finish
a) Three timekeepers are assigned to each team. They stand outside the flight circle, near the pitting area of the model aircraft that they control. They are in charge of the timekeeping and lap counting for their particular team.
b) A first signal given by the Circle Marshal authorises the mechanics to proceed with the warming up to the motor(s), during 90 seconds. A second signal (visual and acoustic) announces the end of the warming up period and orders the mechanics to stop motors.
c) A period of 30 seconds is allowed for final preparations (filling up the tanks) and the Circle Marshal announces the last five seconds by reverse counting.
d) The starting signal is given by the Circle Marshal through a visual signal (flag) and a sound signal. For the last 3 seconds of the countdown and at the starting signal the mechanics must be standing erect close to their model aircraft and the pilots must be crouching on the border of the centre circle, with one hand touching the ground and with their control handles as close to the ground as defined by the F2C panel of judges. The starting signal must be “sharp” to enable accurate timing.
e) Model aircraft must fly at a normal height of between two and three metres, except for overtaking, taking off or landing.
f) Pilots must keep their controlling hand and the model aircraft on a plane perpendicular to a line joining their shoulders and passing through the centre line of their body, pilots must also keep their controlling hand on the vertical line between the middle of the chest and the top of the forehead, except when overtaking, taking off and landing when an exception of three laps is allowed.
g) Overtaking must be done by overflying. The model aircraft is not in any case allowed to fly over six metres height when overtaking. The pilot being overtaken must on no account carry out any manoeuvre to impede the overtaking competitor and must leave space for the overtaking pilot when the overtaking is finished.

h) The model aircraft is allowed to fly a maximum of two laps without the motor running.
i) Landings take place inside the flight circle.
j) The model aircraft must touch the ground with its motor stopped before the mechanic is allowed to catch it.
k) After the mechanic has caught the model aircraft, he must go to the nearest free pitting area from the point at which the model aircraft was stopped. A pitting area is occupied if a mechanic is standing at such an area, even if his team’s model aircraft is still in the air.
l) After the mechanic has caught the model aircraft, but only then, the pilot is allowed to put one foot outside the centre circle.
m) During the refuelling and the restart of the motor, and until the time when he releases the model aircraft, the mechanic must keep the model aircraft in contact with the ground by at least one point and with the centre line outside the flight circle. During that time the pilot must be crouching or sitting inside the centre circle. He keeps one hand on the ground and his handle and his lines as close to the ground as defined by the F2C panel of judges until the model aircraft starts again.
n) The race ends when the number of laps completing the required distance has been covered by all the competing model aircraft or, when the official time limit has been reached, which is fixed at 10 minutes for an eliminating race or a semi-final race and at 15 minutes for the final race.
o) When the model aircraft has finished the race or when it cannot continue after a stop, its pilot must sit down or crouch outside the centre circle as long as the other competitors are still engaged in the race, unless the Circle Marshal allows him to leave the circle earlier.
4.3.8. Definition of an Official FlightAn official flight is recorded for every participant in any race not granted an attempt.
Attempts are granted as follows:
a) Any team in an eliminating race or a semi-final race which has been interrupted through an obstruction or collision for which it was not responsible shall be granted an attempt.
b) In a final race which has been interrupted through an obstruction or collision before any of the participants has completed 100 laps the final shall be stopped and all competitors, except any who have at the point of stoppage of the race been disqualified, shall be granted an attempt.
c) If, before 50 laps of an eliminating race or a semi-final race have been completed by any of the teams who started the race, only one team remains in the running and flying alone, the race will be declared void and considered an attempt for the remaining team. A team which has been granted an attempt is allowed to participate in another race.
4.3.9. Warnings – Eliminations
At each warning the chief judge shall notify the team manager concerned so that, in turn, he may convey the reason of the warning to the mechanic. In the event of any serious breach of the rules, the F2C panel of judges may eliminate the team from the race.A TEAM SHALL BE WARNED:
a) If a pilot interferes with or obstructs another pilot either by his conduct in the circle (for example by raising the handle above his head during take-off), or by a manoeuvre of his model aircraft preventing another model aircraft from flying or landing normally.
b) If a pilot, instead of walking around the centre, stands in the same place or walks backwards or continuously keeps the centre spot of the circle between him and the model aircraft.
c) If the pilot’s flying style does not conform to 4.3.7.f).
d) If a pilot applies physical effort to increase the speed of his model aircraft during the official flight.
e) If the height level of the flight prescribed by the rules is exceeded.
f) If, during the start of the race or during the pit stops, one hand is not on the ground, the control handle, the lines and the model aircraft are not as close to the ground as defined by the F2C panel of judges and/or the centre line of the model aircraft is inside the flight circle.
g) If a mechanic services the model aircraft outside the designated pitting area.
h) If the pilot does not leave space for an overtaking pilot when the overtaking is finished.
i) For any other flagrant breach of the rules.
j) If the pilot steps outside the centre circle before the mechanic has taken hold of the landing model aircraft, and/or the pilot does not act in accordance with rule 4.3.7.i) and m).
k) If the mechanic steps into the flight circle (with either foot) or reaches further than the safety circle (line) painted 0.5m into the flight circle.
l) If the mechanic retrieves his model aircraft by any device.
m) If overtaking is done by passing under the slower model aircraft.
n) If the pilot whose model aircraft is to be overtaken carries out any manoeuvres to impede the overtaking competitor.
o) If a member of the team or the model aircraft causes a collision.
p) If jettisoning occurs or if the model aircraft is not in the condition as stated in 4.3.4.a). to l).
q) If the model aircraft flies more than two laps with the motor stopped.
r) If the model aircraft is recovered with the motor running or prior to touch down with the motor stopped.
s) If, after its model aircraft have been processed, the competing team has used parts or elements not checked during the control; if the team has modified its model aircraft(s) by changing the characteristics or specifications imposed by the rules this may lead to the application of penalties as stated in the General Section of the Sporting Code.
t) If the mechanic does not act according to 4.3.7.k) and l).
u) If the team has accumulated three warnable offences during the eliminating or semi-final race (100 laps).
v) If in the final (200 laps) the team has accumulated four warnable offences.
4.3.10. Team Qualification and Classification
a) Each competing team must take part in at least one eliminating race to qualify for the semi-finals. The contests will be organised on three eliminating races and if there are no semi-finalists then all teams are allowed four eliminating races.
b) The number of teams qualifying for the semi-finals will depend upon the total number of teams entered in the competition. Each qualifying team may take part in two semi-final races.

Number of teams
2 up to and including 8
9 up to and including 11
12 up to and including 39
40 or greater

Number of semi-finalists

The 6, 9 or 12 teams which register the 6, 9 or 12 best times respectively during the eliminating races qualify for the semi-finals.
c) There is a tie between some teams when their best times in any single eliminating race are equal and also between their second best (and so forth in case of three flights). If there still exists a tie between some teams, new eliminating race(s) will be organised between these teams until an adequate number of teams is qualified. In that case, departure will be made by an individual draw.
d) This system for the elimination of ties will only be enforced if more the number of semi-finalists (6, 9 or 12, depending on the total number of teams entered in the competition) qualify for the semi-finals.
e) The three teams having registered the three best times during the semi-finals qualify for the final race. In the case that no semi-final flights have taken place, the three teams having registered the three best times during the eliminating races qualify for the final race.All semi-final races will take place between three teams. Where this cannot be achieved either by withdrawal or in re-flights, then the number will be made up by bringing forward the tenth placed team (seventh or thirteenth in case of 6 or 12 semi-finalists) and so on as necessary. Those teams will not be granted an attempt but any recorded flight(s) shall be eligible to qualify for the final race.
f) In case of a tie amongst the semi-finalists during the semi-finals, the regulations (b), (c) and (d) will be applied, based on the semi-final results, the number 6, 9 or 12 being reduced to three.The competing teams which have participated in the final race will be placed at the head of the classification, only taking into account the times of flights during the final race, after checking tank capacity and the general characteristics of the model aircraft.The teams which have participated in the semi-finals will be placed next in order of classification, only taking into account the times during the semi-finals. All teams not participating in the semi-finals will be classified according to their best time in any single eliminating race. Classification of any team that has not completed any race within the official time limit but was not disqualified, shall be ranked according to the number of laps completed in the best race.If more than one team is disqualified in the final race, they are placed in the order of the number of laps completed. A disqualified team is always placed after any team that has retired without a disqualification.Note : The F2C panel of judges’ decision must be communicated to the lap counters to ascertain the number of “legal” laps.
g) is omitted.
h) A specific junior final will be flown if, at least, three junior teams have recorded a time after the eliminating races.The result of this junior final will be taken into account only for the specific junior classification, and will not change the general placing.
4.3.11. International Team ClassificationInternational team classification is established by adding the numerical position achieved by each individual team. The lowest team is ranked first, etc. with complete three-team teams ahead of two-team teams which in turn are ranked ahead of single team entries. In case of a team tie, the best individual placing decides.
4.3.12. Judges and Timekeepers
a) The organisers must appoint a panel of at least three judges, who shall be selected from a list of persons proposed by the National Airsports Controls for their proficiency and experience and approved by the CIAM. The judges must have at least one language in common. At World and Continental Championships and other limited entry international competitions, the judges must be of different nationalities. In open international competitions, the judges must be at least two nationalities and two of them must be approved by CIAM.
b) Three timekeepers, equipped with electronic stopwatches registering at least 1/100th second, with a timing limit of minimum of 15 minutes will be allotted to each team. The stopwatches may be replaced or complemented by a computerised timing system of equal or better accuracy.
c) The time retained is the average of the registered time, made up to the next upper 1/10th second. A maximum tolerance of 0,18 seconds is allowed between watches. Any single watch exceeding this tolerance shall not be counted in the average.
4.3.13. Duties of the F2C panel of judges
a) The F2C panel of judges is responsible for observing the conduct of each team during the race. Teams will be informed of any offence by a combination of visual and loudspeaker verbal warnings. After a maximum of three offences a team will be eliminated from an eliminating or semi-final race. In the final a team will be eliminated after a maximum of four offences.
b) Warning and cancellation are notified to each team by means of three coloured lights:Green light – First warning (first offence)
Amber light – Second warning (renewal of the first offence or a new one)
Red light –Third warning (renewal of previous offences or a new one)For the final only (200 laps), renewal of previous offences for the fourth time or a new offence a team shall be disqualified by the judges verbally announcing “Colour – fourth offence. Disqualified. Land your model immediately”.In addition, a second set of lights, one coloured for each team colour, will be provided. Upon the issuance of the fourth warning in a final race, the appropriate light for the disqualified team will be displayed.
c) A time penalty of 5 seconds shall be given to a team starting the engine(s) during the countdown before the starting signal.
d) In the final, a time penalty of 5 seconds shall be given to a team with the third warnable offences.
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